This is the complete list of men's medalists in athletics at the Summer Olympics. It does not include the medalists from the Athletics at the 1906 Intercalated Games – these are no longer regarded as an official part of the Olympic chronology by the IOC.
The distance of the marathon at the Olympics has varied in the early years, before being standardized at 42,195 m in 1924, the distance that was run at the 1908 Olympics. In other years, the distances have been:
- 1896: 40,000 m (approximately)
- 1900: 40,260 m (25.02 mi)
- 1904: 40,000 m (24.85 mi)
- 1912: 40,200 m (24.98 mi)
- 1920: 40,750 m (25.32 mi)
Note: * Indicates athletes who ran in preliminary rounds and also received medals.